Saturday, 15 September 2012

THE ROLE OF ENGLISH TEACHER AS A MOTIVATOR AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL


THE ROLE OF ENGLISH TEACHER AS A MOTIVATOR AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL

BY
ALTAF MUHAMMAD

A thesis submitted to NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MODERN LANGUAGES Islamabad, Pakistan
in partial fulfillment for the requirement of MA English degree



NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MODERN LANGUAGES
Islamabad, Pakistan
June, 2012






RESEARCHER’S DECLARATION
I, Altaf Muhammad, do hereby declare on solemn affirmation that the work presented in this thesis is my own and was carried out in the supervision of Ms. Ayesha Salman.
I have never presented it to any other university or institution for the award of any degree or certificate.
________________________
Altaf Muhammad
(Researcher)
Certified
                                                                                                                _________________
Dr. Nighat Ahmed
Head Faculty of English Language
Literature and Applied Linguistics


___________________                                              ________________
Ms. Ayesha Salman.                                                   Ms. Sana Tariq
(Supervisor)                                                                 (Subject Teacher)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Allah, The Almighty, is the only One deserving of all praise and glory, for He is the only One who can set our paths straight. Muhammad (P.B.U.H.), The Last Prophet of Allah Almighty is the one who show mankind the path of enlightenment.
Researching is a tedious task which cannot be completed in isolation. The support and help of friends and the guidance of teachers is of utmost importance in this process. I express my deepest gratitude to those who helped me in this journey.
I would like to thank my all teachers and colleagues who helped me in one or other way while doing this job of research.
I would like to thank my supervisor Madam Ayesha Salman, who agreed to supervise my thesis and provided me with absolute support and help. She is a source of my true inspiration as she always encouraged and boasted my morale during crucial hours of completion of tedious task of this research. I pray to Almighty Allah for her long life, prosperity and success with many more bounties among both the worlds, Ameen.
I would like to thank my subject teacher Madam Sana Tariq, for giving me precious knowledge, guidelines and valuable help to complete this thesis. I especially obliged her for supervising my work in the absence of my supervisor. Her guidance and encouragement with patience in a more human manner is a turning point in my life and a true source of my motivation to follow as role model to win the rewards in a more befitting manner.
I am extremely thankful to my synopsis examiner Sir, Faisal Malik for giving me technical advice and support to proceed with my research in a more befitting manner.
I especially grateful to my friend Muhammad Saadique for his valuable help and support, particularly formatting of this thesis according to MLA format and as well as my encouragement by providing highly valued guidelines to complete this study successfully.
I owe my great thanks to my friend Abdul Khaliq Bin Hussain for his kind cooperation and valuable help while gathering data relating to my research and for providing with good ideas and true inspiration to complete my tedious task of this research work.
I am grateful to my all family members, my father and mother who brought up me and with whom prayers I was able to reach upto this level of studies. I am thankful to my brother Muhammad Zeeshan, Muhammad Mushtaq, Muhammad Ashfaq and Rohail Zafar for their help and support to complete this study.
In the end I am thankful to my class fellows and all those persons who helped me in any capacity to complete my thesis in a more successful manner.



DEDICATION
I dedicate this research work to my parents, without their support, I would not have accomplished this task and to my siblings who encouraged me to complete this research to the best of my abilities.









DELIMITATION
The researcher will emphasize on the role of English teacher as a motivator at Secondary School level by delimiting his research up to three private schools at district Rawalpindi.

ABSTRACT
Motivation is characteristic which urges student, to enhance their abilities in order to achieve respective goals. Therefore, the basic aim of this research was to find out the role of English teacher as a motivator at secondary school level. For investigation of motivation questionnaire were distributed among teachers and also class room observation were conducted. During the course of our investigation it is it be found that environment of the class room teachers students relationship different activities helps a lot of improving the education level of students. Using such strategies increase students interest which can be rewarding for the learner and effective for the teacher.










CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Teacher is a spiritual mentor who plays a vital role in our society towards grooming and imparting the quality education from very beginning of the formative stage of a child. The Teacher trains and gives us true inspiration and guidance toward right direction even during utter dismays of a student. Teacher motivates us in the best manner for facing challenges and to tackle the hurdles of life befittingly.  Teacher does not impart only knowledge related to the subject but also show us right direction that leads to success. So the teacher plays the most important role in our life after our parents.
Teacher is a role model for his learners; he does not only impart knowledge related to the books but also teaches good moral and discipline values, which are contributory factors in human character building.
A teacher is a “Guide”, “Facilitator” and a motivator as well, who understands the verbal and non-verbal gestures of students. A teacher is the person who changes all “I can’t” into “I can”. Teacher is a person who thinks good for our future and teacher is the only facilitator who builds up the decision making power in its students and helps us to make decision that are right for the students.
Teacher plays a very important role to bring the significant change in society. He/she also plays a vital role in the system of education, because teacher is a character as well as a motivator. It totally depends upon the qualities of teacher. A well equipped teacher is a supreme factor in education as well as in society. Teacher is a national integrator for actively participate and shape the responsibility for recons acting the social order, like the values, beliefs and traditions.
Teacher is always concerned with children who are potential leaders of tomorrow. Tomorrow’s society will depend upon the types of citizen trained and educated today in the temples of learning as teacher involves in the responsibility of building of a nation.
The aim is strong character building in our learners, they must learn to act in accordance with what they prefer, right from the binging, students need to follow the appropriate path, to carry out their due roll in the culture as well as in the society, and to adopt what they find good and to avoid what they think is morally wrong.  It is imperatives for the teacher to cultivate human virtues in their students from primary level to secondary level of their education and training.
For instance the promotion of truth, honesty, punctuality, hard work, social and civic sense, tolerance and obedience to law should be the hall mark of an education system.
As I mentioned earlier that teacher is a corrector, and a motivator. Corrector in the sense that if student commit some mistakes in speaking or writing, teacher points out these mistakes and in friendly manner gives instruction to his/her learners in order to save them from such mistakes, either in speaking or writing.  Motivator in the sense that he/she raises an urge of doing something extraordinary and at the same time, motivates them, that nothing is impossible only determination is required. So in this way, the mental level of students become stronger and they try at their levels best to get their aims.
As we know that teacher is a shadow of Hazrat MOHAMMAD (S.A.W.W), they should impart best knowledge for development of students as well as for society. Teaching profession is more important and our Holy Prophet proudly declared it to be a prominent part of his personality and prophet hood.
According to B.F. Skinner, motivation is an “incentive or reward”. Teacher motivates his/her students to achieve pedagogic objectives. The Cognitive Evaluation theory suggests that there are actually two motivation systems: intrinsic and extrinsic that corresponds to two kinds of motivators. Intrinsic motivators take responsibility and pay attention to their achievements. They come from the actual performance of their work. Their intrinsic interest in the task is their motivation. Extrinsic motivators focus on external factors.  These external factors such as pay, promotion, feedback, and working conditions are controlled by others. B.F. Skinner asserts that individuals, who are intrinsically motivated, perform for their own achievement and satisfaction. If they are required to work under external factors, they begin to lose motivation. External control may turn off the intrinsically motivated students.
According to Herzberg, two kinds of factors affect students’ motivation. If these kinds are taken away, students become dissatisfied and try to get them back. Some students are in the habit to do best under decent study environment. If they are not provided with adequate environment, they are unable to show the expected results. They remain in search to have study environment of their choice. Factors that affect these students are named as hygiene factors. Herzberg has named some other factors as motivators. The presence of these factors motivates but their absence does not cause any dissatisfaction. Intrinsic motivators are examples of these factors.

1.1 TEACHER SKILLS
If we discuss about the skills of a teacher we see first of all that teacher should be a good communicator. He/she should have an ability to use the language in both written and oral forms. If he/she is a good communicator and has full command over the whole area of language, then students take him/her as their ideal and try to copy their style. Teachers must have good presentation skills of the language, as well as good pronunciation, which would help learner to follow in their own speech.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
a.      To analyze teaching style of English teachers at secondary level in Rawalpindi District.
b.      To analyze interaction between English teachers and students at secondary level.
c.      To investigate the proper system to enhance caliber   of English teachers at Secondary School.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Teacher is responsible for preparing the future nation. Teacher motivates and prepares student for real learning. Motivation plays a vital role in achieving pedagogic objectives.

1.4 DELIMITATIONS
The study is limited to secondary school teachers of district Rawalpindi. This study is limited to private schools only.

1.5 HYPOTHESIS
Teacher as a motivator plays an important role in language teaching classroom (on secondary level).

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is useful to understand the role of English teachers at secondary school. This study is also helpful to find out teacher-students relation and teaching learning process. It is also helpful to understand the teaching strategies, teaching style, and communication skills of English teacher and different methods (methodology) which are being used by the teacher for secondary school students. This study analyzes the qualities of a good teacher, status of a teacher in the perspective of Quran, the new demands on the role of the teacher and importance of the role of a teacher in primary, middle schools as well as in secondary school.

1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study was conducted in the paradigm of quantitative research. Correlational design was adopted to find out relationship between teacher’s motivation and students’ achievements.

1.8 SAMPLE
Population of the study includes English teachers and students at secondary school level in Pakistan. The study was confined to Rawalpindi district as its target population. The target population consists of 3 x private secondary schools of the district. Names of the schools are as under:-
a)      Habib Public School, Khanna Road, Al-Noor Colony Rawalpindi.
b)      Asif Public School, Khanna Road, Al-Noor Colony Rawalpindi.
c)      Faisal Public School, Abdullah Mosque street, Khanna Road Rawalpindi.
Due to limited time, resources and a large number of schools I have selected only 3 classrooms of each secondary schools of Rawalpindi District as a sample. Techniques of Random sampling were utilized to select teachers and select classrooms for observation. The observed classrooms consist of twenty five students each.
1.9 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES
The data was collected through personal visits. A multiple choice questionnaire was developed by the researcher and it was used as research instrument for the study. Lim identified several advantages in using a multiple choice test instead of using composition and other tests.
Firstly, it saves time and therefore avoids needless disruption of normal schedules as the test could be concurrently presented to the subjects of the study. In addition, with the use of a multiple choice test the errors that result from poor listening and oral skills could be voided as it focuses as on students’ knowledge of language under study.
Some researchers, such as Jacobs and Chase and Lowman, assert that multiple-choice questions are suitable and appropriate for evaluating students' mastery of information and specific knowledge, while essay questions like written composition evaluate comprehension, the ability to assimilate and combine, and the ability to apply information to new situations. Keeping in view the above facts, a multiple choice test was used to facilitate the process of achieving the objectives of this study.
CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Motivation relates to the biological emotional, psychological or communal aspects which activate through behavior. Motivation urges people to do things more competently or swiftly. Many studies on motivation have focused on individuals employed in teaching profession. Similarly, in business organizations, industries and armed forces set ups where formal supervisor verses worker relationships can be stimulated to a large extent by rewards such consolation in shape of wages, remunerations, monetary benefits and promotions etc.
The purpose of this study was to explore the background of motivation and motivational strategy and highlights the salient aspects relating to the role of teacher as motivator as secondary school level. Motivational techniques used by the teachers and their impact on efficiency of the student were the core area of the research. The current literature review explains the theoretical aspects of motivation, its chronological sketch, and approaches of motivation. It also serves the analysis of motivational techniques, functions and roles of teacher at secondary school level.
The under mentioned literature review will explore learner’s motivation in classroom, coaching methods and optional assessment encourage motivation.  In many institutions and classrooms, learners show to be unmotivated and unwillingness to learn.  The motivation of learners may be related to the techniques or methods use by the teachers in classroom.  This review of literature would highlight the significance of learner’s motivation in a successful educational atmosphere.  Most of the classroom and instructional techniques along with substituted assessment practices which have been shown to improve motivational levels will also be analyzed in the literature review.

2.1 CLASSROOM MOTIVATION

Classroom environment surely affects the minds of students. It the atmosphere of the class is comfortable, relax, good, pleasurable then student will feel like at home and will learn proficiently. Student will gain confidence and creativity comes of such kind of environment of the classroom. For proficient learning the classroom environment is more important. It should be wide enough that students should sit in a relax mood, clean well decorated and so on. Teacher is the one who can make the atmosphere of the classroom like paradise which is most encouraging and resultantly education level of the student is raised high.
Autonomous learning urges students to concentrate on their studies by employing all their abilities and talents to comprehend the required lesson so as to meet the terminal objectives in a befitting manner. Turner says that “when teacher allows students to make decisions about their own work students is more likely to be interested in the work. Students who are given choices tend to exhibit more persistence, goal setting and other self-regulated learning behaviors”. Similarly Guthric also recommends that “giving students autonomy in selecting texts to read, sub topics to pursue and modes for expressing their learning”. So we assume that autonomy helps students to control over their studies. If students are given chances to select their own topics, it would not only helpful for them to prepare their topics well but at the same time they would take interest to achieve their respective goal i.e. learning a lesson. Self selection would increase their interest in studies make them confident and as well broaden their minds. For instance if teacher gives task about presentation and tells students to choose what ever topic they like. In this case we would observe that the students will work hard, cooperate with each other, discuss with teacher and try at their level best to accomplish their task well. Through this way students will act in a more responsible way with critical thinking and a creative ability will be generated among them. Moreover, we also know that it would systematize their study, control over the subject and help students to arrange every thing in a proper manner. It would also make students disciplinary in their professional life too. Though students commit mistakes in selection but teacher help them to make it correct and guide them to avoid such mistakes in future. So if we see overall self directed study is some how good for increasing student interest.
Group discussion is also a very important aspect in order to develop interest and creativity amongst the students. Through this way they would be able to conduct their studies in a spirited team work which will obviously augment their learning capabilities according to a desired standard as well.  Bossert argues that “motivation is one of the potential meditating processes whereby cooperative learning effects achievement. According to him peer encouragement may improve task engagement and the novelty of collaborative learning tasks causes students to shift attention resources”. Moreover, Turner states that “voluntary uses high level self-regulated learning, strategies such as paying attention, connection, planning, and monitoring”. We get our ideas from the above statement of turner, that if learner selects self-directed study then usually he/ she pay attention to it. This self directed study is somehow good for students it would make them creative, independent and consistent in studies. But teacher help is also to be required, for further perfection and excellency in learning. If we too give chances to our students at secondary level for control over their learning and at the same time we guide them in proper way, they will become proficient learners. Teacher’s role is important here if he/ she judge the caliber or mental level and also their interested areas, so they need to motivate and guide the students in proper direction, which will be helpful for them. So success in education can possible in such way, when teachers, in friendly manner, interact with students, and gives them free hand to control over their studies but at the same time have proper check and balance in their work in this way students feel relax and learn the things easily, because, they choose the material by their own. If we apply the method of peer work in our secondary school level, the level of education will be increased. It will also keep the interest of students. This method will be helpful for keeping the minds of students fresh and relax. More the learners feel relax more the chances of better results. Therefore, it is very fruitful method for increasing learner’s interest and standard of education. When a teacher teaches his/her students a poem, a story or an essay on a particular topic etc he needs to engage students in different activities according to the topic. It help student to understand the material, and also to enhance their interest in studies. A teacher is required to design activities related to the topic and make groups, for completing the activities. This peer grouping is really helpful for the students. Basic reason of such activities is to know the real essence of the material. Once learners realize the importance of activities in their academic careers, they work hard for producing better results. Therefore, a secondary school English teacher needs to explain the topic well design activities practice.
High test or tough test causes difficulties 3for students. High test or tough test causes frustrations (Erwin). The basic reasons for the poor results in schools are due to the tough tasks, which seem impossible for learners. Task or activities should be according to the student’s caliber; in this case the results will be fruitful. If teacher respects his/her students and gives value to learner’s ideas, as a result learners will feel themselves the part of the institution, which ultimately leads to quality of education. Thus motivation of a teacher along with respect for students causes excellent results. In Pakistan secondary school teachers degrade their students, which cause their poor performances in exam. Actually every student has rights, if they are granted equal values, then there will be no frustration and disappointment, the results will be fruitful.
Goal fixing pays an important role in students’ motivation. When they fix goal in their mind, they try their level best to achieve it. As Mendler states, “Fast and Easy, has replaced, work and earn as a motto that guides many of our youth”. Teachers also fix goal in their mind, which they want to achieve. These goals are basically for attaining competence and performance. For example, if students fix a goal in their minds, i.e. to get through examination, certainly, students require capacity to achieve it. Teacher being a motivator shows right direction to students, for achieving a specific goal. Teacher also tells students the importance and purpose of goal. In this way students take it for granted, when they considered that is beneficial for them. One may say, that goal is some sort of reward for which learners try. Rader also supports this view that goal setting is a kind of strategy used by a teacher to strengthen learner’s capacity. When students once decide their respective aims, they try hard to achieve the goals which make them consistent and independent learners. Teacher being a motivator needs to facilitate, the students in order to make sure of their success. Similar is the case with English language, when learners once decide to learn English, and for this purpose learner usually takes helpful form a lot of resources, other than teacher which at the end leads them to become proficient learners. English learning is the aim of students, and students usually do hectic efforts to master various language skills. Finally, one can say that for every field of life goal setting is important. There are few factors which make it easy to achieve the goal namely (1) selection of proper goal (2) time for achieving the goal, means how much energy is required to achieve the goal. (3) Determination is also required to accomplish a task it means, ability to face the danger. When students follow their rules, then surely they get success in their education careers.
“Creating hope involves creating mountains that students believe they can climb'' (ibid). Hope is an essential element of life. When there is no hope, there will be no hard working and also no achievement. Hope gives us pleasure and it also maintains our desire aims. Therefore if a teacher uses this strategy in class it will be very effective for students. Those students who are not good in studies, and fail in exams they usually decide to leave the school which is harmful for them and also for the national progress. So in this case teacher can play a very important role. Teacher needs to give hope to his/her students, that if they work hard the will get success next time. Teacher also needs to use affections words on such occasion, which would strengthen his/her views about hope. Anyhow giving hope to students makes them stick to their studies as the highest degree of motivation in education. As we know that teacher is like parental, heeler, who comfort students whenever they are in stress.
Example: As Muslims we try to achieve paradise, and for that purpose we struggle a lot in this world face a lot of obstacles in our way, but at the end we have hope that one day we will get our aims. Same is the case of students they start studies with tears, face a lot obstacles in the form of exams and at the end get success for which they hope.
Launching certain questions also play a very vital role in the progressive education. According to Harada and Yoshina “questioning should be at the center of the learning experience to provoke the students own curiosity and wonder should provide the seeds for meaningful learning.”  Teacher as a motivator play a vital role in increasing the interest of students. After delivering a speech or instruction about writing on a particular topic, a teacher needs to check the IQ level of the students too, that how much they understood the topic, for that purpose teacher needs to use the strategy of questioning. When he or she asks questions, from their students, they think of it and try to answer. This way helps students to understand the content material well. They also try to relate it to their personal lives, which make it easy for them, to understand the importance of such materials. Overall we get the ideas that the more teachers ask questions the more students remains active in the classroom, and participate in learning a lesson. This leads students towards excellence and makes them, proficient learners. If we also adopt this method at our secondary school level then surely we improve our education. For excellent learning understanding of material is necessary. And how we achieve it, when we question from students and from them we get the ideas that how much they learnt. We need to adopt suitable methods for teaching, may be helpful for every students in the class and not for a particular students.
Motivation is a sort of strategy which a teacher uses in order to make his/her learners proficient. Those teachers who use these techniques in classroom get excellent results. Moreover we can say that motivation enhance students interest and make them mentally strong. B.F Skinner considers motivation a reward and incentive. A reward is an attractive object or event supplied as a consequence of a particular behavior". So if we apply the same method on humans, we too get benefit of it. For example if a student is repeatedly rewarded with affection, money and praise, the student will probably work longer and harder, to achieve his/her aim. Same is the case of a teacher, who motivates his/her students to achieve their target in relevant learning. Habit formation is important to study. When students do not take interest in their studies, teacher is the one who can create study atmosphere for them. Teacher adopts such strategies to increase their interest and also to achieve his/her goal. Once students make the habit of study then teacher motivates them to do those tasks which are considered by them impossible. So in this way we can say that behaviorists were right in their opinion that habit formation for every task is necessary. Without habit formation nothing can be possible. Similarly behaviorists also use positive and negative reinforcement terms.
Positive reinforcement is an incentive, reward or praise etc. For good and excellent results, teacher usually uses this technique. This technique not only increases the interest of student and studies but at the same time learners competently contests with each other to win prize etc. Positive reinforcement also creates suitable environment for learning process. Teacher communicates with his/her student in a friendly manner. Teacher helps them when they commit mistakes, guide them in proper way and at the same time encourage them to put in deliberate efforts for good results. So it means that positive reinforcement is productive and constructive in the field of education. Teacher uses this technique more to improve the students learning process. For almost every filed of life positive reinforcement is good.
Negative reinforcement relates to punishment i.e. physically and mentally. This technique not only reduces the interest of students in their studies but also have negative impact on their lives too. We know that to err is human. So students in learning commit mistakes and these mistakes make them proficient learners but when teacher tortures or discourages his/her students, it will have negative effect on their learning. The result of this negative reinforcement is that students stop taking interest in their studies which ultimately leads them to leave their studies in very early age. In Pakistan, teachers at secondary level usually discourage students, so we see that result is not always encouraging. Moreover, negative reinforcement also spoils the atmosphere of the class room. When the atmosphere of the class is not according to the student interest then how would they take interest in learning? Majority of our students and people agree that the use of negative reinforcement becomes the cause of frustration and reducing the level of energy. We observed earlier in Skinner’s experiment on a rat which is an inferior creature as compared to human being. Although being inferior creature, it learnt how to accomplish his task. So being superior creature, human beings should also achieve those tasks which seem impossible for them by using positive reinforcement.
It is worth while that high self efficacy students show more good result as compared to low self efficacy students. High self efficacy students will participate in class and did their home work or task in time while low self efficacy students will avoid themselves from hard tasks assigned etc. The reason of such bad result is because of lack of motivation. If students are motivated then they actively participate in the class and also take interest in their studies. Margolis and McCabe state, “It is widely believed that without sufficiently high self-efficacy, or the belief that they can succeed on specific academic tasks such as home work, many struggling learners will not make the effort needed to master academics”.  Teachers should not assign such tasks to the students which promote anxiety or frustration amongst them.  Teachers should well aware of their appropriate educative and self-governing levels to make sure that given assignments are suitable.








The present chapter focuses on the interpretation and analysis of the collected data through questionnaire.
STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 1- Is the role of teacher as motivator vital in classroom?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
20
3
0
23
100
86.95
13.04
0%
100



             1=Yes             2=No               3=Some time                4=Total

Analysis:
Majority of teachers agree that role of teacher as motivator is vital in classroom while minority disagrees with it.


STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 2- Is it easy to motivate students if you teach the subject of your own choice?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
10
5
8
23
100
43.47
21.73
34.78
100




           

 1=Yes             2=No               3=Some time                4=Total

Analysis:
The data show that majority of the teachers agree that if they have to teach the subject of their own choice they can motivate students easily. Only 21.74% disagree this view. 34.78 % teacher considers that motivation can be done but it is not quite easy.

STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 3- Do you consider the interest of students while designing creative writing activities?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
21
0
2
23
100
91.30
0
8.69
100





1=Yes              2=No               3=Some time                4=Total

Analysis:                                                                                           
91.30 teachers agree that while designing creative writing activities they consider the interest of students while 8.69 say that some times.






STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 4- Does school administration provide A.V.Aid to you when you are teaching in the class?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
7
8
8
23
100
30.43
34.78
34.78
100





1=Yes              2=No               3=Some time                4=Total

Analysis:
Only 30.43 respondents agree that school administration provide A.V.Aid , when they are teaching in the class room while 37.78 disagree with it . 34.78% are of the view that sometime.



STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 5 - Are you satisfied with present performance of your school?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
19
2
2
23
100
82.60
8.69
8.69
100



 















1=Yes              2=No               3=Some time                4=Total

Analysis:
82.60% respondents agree that they satisfied with the Present performance of their school. 8.69% disagree while8.69% are of the view that sometime.






STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 6 – Do you think that secondary school teachers in Pakistan make the environment of the class conducive to learning?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
21
0
2
23
100
91.30
0
8.69
`100







1=Yes              2=No               3=Some time                4=Total

Analysis:
91.30% agree that at secondary school teachers in Pakistan make the environment of the class conductive to learning, while 8.69% respondents are of the view that sometimes.




STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 7.  Do you agree that A.V.AID helps student in following instruction?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
22
0
1
23
100
95.65
0
4.34
100





1=Yes              2=No               3=Some time                4=Total

Analysis:
95.62 agree that A.V.Aid helps students in following instruction, while 4.34 disagree with it.








STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 8.  Do you use multiple techniques or skills for teaching?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
17
2
4
23
100
73.91
8.69
17.39
100






1=Yes              2=No               3=Some time                4=Total

Analysis:
73.91 agree that they use multiple techniques or skills for teaching students, while 8.69 disagree, the remaining 17.39 are of the view that sometime.




STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 9.  Do you agree that majority of teachers prepare their lectures according to the students interests and needs?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
13
7
3
23
100
56.52
30.43
13.04
100





1=Yes              2=No               3=Some time                4=Total

Analysis:
Majority of respondents agree that they prepare their lectures according to the student’s interest and needs, while 30.43 disagree with it. 13.04 are of the view that sometime.




STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 10.  Are you satisfied with your profession?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
22
1
0
23
100
95.65
4.34
0
100



 











1=Yes              2=No                  3=Some time           4=Total

Analysis:
95.62 respondents agree that they are satisfied with their profession while 4.34 disagree with it.







STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 11.  Do you believe that  your communication skills are effective enough for students motivation?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
19
1
3
23
100
82.6087
4.3478
13.04%
100





1=Yes              2=No                  3=Some time           4=Total

Analysis:

82.69 % agree that their communication skills are effective enough for student’s motivation, while 4.34% disagree with it. 13.04 % are of the view that sometime.




STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 12.  Do you think that students are motivated and encouraged by parents?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
12
3
8
23
100
52.17
13.04
34.78
100





1=Yes                      2=No                3=Some time                4=Total

Analysis:
52.17%  respondents agree, that they think that students are motivated and encouraged by parents while 13.04 disagree with it and 37.78 are of the view that sometime.




STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 13.  Are you able to comprehend the intellectual requirements of the students?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
11
1
11
23
100
47.82
4.34
47.82
100






1=Yes              2=No            3=Some time           4=Total

Analysis:

47.82 respondents agree, that they comprehend the intellectual requirements of the students, while 4.34 disagree with it and 47.82 think that sometime.


STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 14.  Do you think that role of secondary School teachers is vital in building up student’s personality?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
20
0
3
23
100
86.95
0
13.04
100




1=Yes              2=No            3=Some time           4=Total

Analysis:

Majority respondents agree that role of secondary school teachers is vital in building up students personality while 13.04 agree that sometimes.






STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 15.  Are parents of your students satisfied with your teaching strategies?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
15
0
8
100
23
65.21
0
34.78
100





1=Yes              2=No            3=Some time           4=Total

Analysis:

62.21 respondents agree that parents of students are satisfied with their teaching strategies.





STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 16.  Have you interest in teaching and selected this profession of your own choice?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
21
2
0
23
100
91.30
8.69
0%
100





1=Yes              2=No            3=Some time           4=Total

Analysis:

91.34% respondents agree that they interest and selected this profession at their own choice only 8.69 disagree with it.






STATEMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE
TABLE NO 17.  Do you think that physical punishment is a solution to all types of problems in the class?
S/No
Yes
No
Some time
Total
%
% of Yes
% of No
% of Some Time
Total %
1
3
16
4
23
100
13.04
69.56
17.39
100





1=Yes              2=No            3=Some time           4=Total

Analysis:

Only 13.04 respondents agree that physical punishment is a solution to all types of problems in the class, while 69.56 disagree with it and 17.39 respondents are of the view that sometimes.


CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS


Observation#1
Observer       Altaf Muhammad                    Teacher      Sadia Noor
Subject         English A                                 Time                8:15- 8:45
Boys             11                                            Girls                14

Teacher’s behaviors and style of teaching
Asif Public School System, Al Noor colony


  1. Enter the classroom in a pleasant mood and greets the students.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Proper interaction with students.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Proper introduction of the topic.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Highlight the keywords and information about the topic.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Relate the material to the student’s personal life experiences.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Teacher explains everything in detail and also gives suitable examples according to the topic.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Teacher gives satisfactory answers to the student’s questions.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Use good communication skills while teaching.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Motivates his/her students to learn the content well.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Use native language when necessary to justify his/her point of view.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure


STRUCTURE OF THE CLASSROOM
Text Box: 								           18													         		14			         14																					                         18
Classroom is wide, clean, well decorated, ventilated. Students feel relax and learn well in such environment.                                       

STUDENT’S BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING PROCESS

  1. Students greet the teacher.
  2. Students are quiet and respectful to the teacher.
  3. Students take interest in their studies.
  4. Good interaction between teacher and students.
  5. Students are busy to accomplish their task in the classroom.
  6. Teacher points out their mistakes and guide them in a proper way.
  7. Teacher also motivates them.
  8. Students actively participate in the classroom.
  9. All students are enthusiastic to learn about the particular topic.
  10. The atmosphere of the classroom is suitable for learning.

CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS


Observation#2
Observer          Altaf Muhammad                    Teacher M. Saddique
Subject            English B                                 Time    8:15 -  8:45
Boys                11                                            Girls                14
Teacher’s behavior and style of teaching
Habib Public School, Al Noor colony
  1. Enter to the classroom in a pleasant mood and greets the students.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Teacher is serious and disciplinary.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Good communication skills and command over subject and language skills.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure

  1. Gives complete detail about the author of the poem and introduction to the whole poem.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Explain each and every word and their literal and hidden meanings.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Also involves the students during the lesson.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Good eye contact involves and encourages the students.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Expect better result from students.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure




STRUCTURE OF THE CLASSROOM

 





Classroom is well decorated and has less space. Colorful charts are displayed. Chairs and desks are neat.

STUDENT’S BEHAVIORS AND LEARNING PROCESS

  1. Students are disciplinary and quiet in the classroom.
  2. Students are respectful towards their teacher.
  3. They actively participate during the lesson.
  4. They put questions during the lesson where they do not understand.
  5. They complete their task in groups.
  6. They are good in speaking.
  7. Teacher motivates them and points out their mistakes which makes them a proficient learner.
  8. Overall good result in the test.

Classroom observations


Observation#3
Observer          Altaf Muhammad                    Teacher   Abdul Khaliq
Subject            English A                                 Time    8:15 -  8:45
Boys                13                                            Girls                12
Teacher’s behavior and style of teaching
Faisal Public School, Abdullah Masjid, Khanna Pull
  1. Teacher is strict, serious and does not respond to the greetings of the students.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Gives introduction of the topic.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Explain the overall summary of the poem.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Explain difficult meanings, symbols and imageries.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Communication skills are not good and stuck in the middle of the lecture.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Students are not allowed to ask questions during and after the lesson.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure
  1. Motivates only good students and discourages the others.
(a)Yes                                      (b)No                           (c)Not sure


STRUCTURE OF THE CLASSROOM
                                                                                                                                           14                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10                                                    10                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                            
                                      14              
 





The classroom is narrow but decorated with charts. Students are not feeling well in the class.

STUDENT’S BEHAVIOR IN LEARNING PROCESS

  1. Students feel bore in the classroom and lack of interest in studies is there.
  2. Only good students did their homework and the rest were not able to complete their home task.
  3. Teacher checks the work of  good students and motivates them.
  4. Students are using native language in the classroom.
  5. No revision and tests of the previous lesson is conducted.
  6. Disappointed results are there.

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE THREE CLASSROOMS

1)                  Environment in Asif Public School is suitable for best learning because all the teachers motivate students and their relation with the students is friendly. Teacher is actively involve in the activities of the students and guides them whenever they face problems.
2)                  Habib Public School environment is also suitable for learning because their teachers are experienced and they help students in different activities, assignments, speaking and writing. They motivate students to learn the English Language and also to command over the grammar.
3)                  Faisal Public School has shown disappointed results because their teachers are only strict to the old style and they do not use the variety of strategies to make their learner proficient. They do not check their student’s work and they are not concerned with the proficiency of their students.
So, we say that motivation plays a very vital role of maximizing the student’s effort. Students should be motivated and provided with the suitable environment for learning.















CHAPTER 4

CONCLUSIONS

4.1 FINDINGS

Analysis of the Data has revealed the following findings.
1.      According to the calculations of table no 1, 87% respondents agree that the role of teacher as motivator vital in classroom while 13.04% disagree with this view.  
2.      In the calculations of 2nd table 43% respondents agree that it is easy to motivate students if teachers have to teach the subject at their own choice. 21.73% disagree and according to 34.78% sometime motivation can done but it is not easy.
3.      In Table No 3, 91% respondents agree that designing creative writing activities they considered the interest of students.8.69%are of the view that sometimes we considered students interest.   
4.     Table No 4,shows  30.43% respondents agree that school administration  provide them A.V. Aid, while 34.78%disagree with it and 34.78% are of the view that sometime they provide.
5.     The results of Table No 5, shows that 82.60%% respondents agree that they consider, the present performance of their school are helpful for students motivations.8.69%disagree with its, while8.69%`are not sure about it.
6.   In Table No 6, 91.30% respondents agree that secondary schoolteachers in Pakistan make the environment of the class conducive for learning.8.69% respondents are of the view that sometime.
7.      According to the result of Table No 7, 95.65% i respondents agree that A.V. AID helps students in following the instructions, while 4.34% that it may or not helpful.
8.      In calculations of Table No 8 73.91% respondents agree that they use multiple techniques or skills for teaching students, while8.69% disagree with this view and 17.39% write that sometime.  
9.      In Table No 956.52% respondents agree that majority of teachers prepare their lectures according to the student’s interests and needs.30.43% disagree and13.04% that sometime we do this.
10.    95.65%% respondents agree that they are satisfied with their own profession.4.34% are not satisfied with their jobs.
11.    82.60% respondents agree they believe that their communicative skills are effective enough for student’s motivations.only4.34% disagree and 13.04% are not sure about it.
12.    In Table12 52.17%respondents agree that students are motivated and encouraged by paentsle13.04%disagree with this view.34.78%write that sometimes.
13.    According to the results of tableno13, 47.82%respondents agree that they comprehend the intellectual requirements of the students, while 4.34%disagre and47.82%are of the view that sometime they understand students minds.
14.    86.95 respondents agree that the role of secondary school teachers is vital in building up student’s personality. Only 13.04% are of the view that sometime their role is important of making the character of students.
15.    Table No 15, 65.21%respondents agree that parents of students are satisfied, with their teaching strategies.While34.78%are of the view that sometime parents are satisfied.
16.    According to the calculations of Table No 16, 91.30%respondents agree that they have interested in teaching and selected this profession of their own choice.8.69% disagree with this view.
17.      The calculation of table no 17,13.04% respondents agree that physical punishment is a solution of all types of problems in the class. 69.56% disagree with this view and 17.39% that may be or may be not.

4.2 SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATION

4.2.1 GENERAL SUGGESTIONS
1.            Disciplinary teacher makes the student disciplinary.
2.            The appearance of the teacher should be neat and clean, as the teacher is a model for student.
3.            Teacher should be friendly and cooperative so that the students do not hesitate while asking question.
4.            Teacher should be active and positive in the class.
5.            Teacher should be punctual in the class.
6.            Teacher should be honest to his profession.
7.            Teacher’s relation with students should not be biased
Teacher should. be honest, noble and sympathetic and he/she
 also need to teach their students all these values which make their live perfect.
8.            Teacher is supposed to prepare his/her topic well.
9.            A teacher needs to clear each and every minute point of the topic by providing specific example and evidences.
10.        A teacher can explain the material in different ways by relating it to the personal lives of the students.
11.        A teacher needs to adopt the teaching methodology that is comprehended well by all kinds of students in class.
12.        A teacher needs to use variety of styles which suites the caliber of each and every student.
13.        A teacher needs to use different strategies which make students creative and proficient learner.
14.        Teacher should have command over the subject which he/she teaches.
15.        Teacher should be good in communication so that his/her students follow them as a model.
16.        A teacher needs to have proper check and balance on student’s work.
17.        A teacher should point out the mistakes of students and guide them in a proper way to make them proficient learners.
18.        Teacher should not have any grudges with the students.
19.        Teacher should be supportive, cooperative and as well as authoritative.
20.        Teacher should be wise enough to control the class.
21.        A teacher needs to impart the best values of life i.e. truth, honesty, love for human beings etc. which would lead the students towards glory.
22.        A teacher needs to give his/ her students at the same time the lesson of patriotism.
4.2.2 SUGGESTIONS RELATED TO THEME
23.        A teacher needs to create a pleasant atmosphere in the class which is refreshing.
24.        A teacher as a motivator needs to engage the students in different co-curricular activities such as speech competition, writing about certain topics and different games to judge their abilities.
25.        Teacher should motivate his/her students when they fail to accomplish a task and show them proper direction and as well as to use affectionate words which makes them mentally strong.
26.        A teacher as a motivator needs to give choices to their students regarding their studies which would be really helpful to built up their confidence level
27.        In order to enhance the capabilities of teachers it is recommended that only well qualified and competent teachers should be hired for bringing better results. Their efficiency and quality enhancement tests should also be conducted and a surprise check and balance must be exercised properly through fool proof monitoring system on the part of senior officials or head of the institution.
28.        Latest teaching aids and supplementary material especially computers, multi media and other relevant helping material as feasible should be arranged for better education comprehension of the students in rural area schools as well.

In the conclusion it has been noticed that in current situation, learner’s interest in their studies is at a low degree. Learners participation, are not interested in accomplishing, their home tasks, assignments, as well as other activities which make them a proficient learner. According to other researchers, learner’s lack of effort is one of the serious issues for motivator. According to Glasser, it is primary motivational problem. He further explained that in schools students not only do their best effort but at the same time will waste a lot of energy of avoiding hard work. Moreover, disappointed result of the school is due to the student’s lack of motivation and as well as of their own lack of interest in doing hard work To improve learner’s interest and also to cultivate life long learners, this is of more significant to motivate students for improving and increasing the education rate. So, we can say that for best result both parents, teacher’s motivation is a primary important factor.       
Throughout the course of investigation, it is has been observed that motivation play an important role in student’s learning process. The more teachers motivate his/her students the more chances to get extraordinary results. We have observed during the course of study that there are possible factors which are helpful or effective for proficient learning i.e. environment of the classroom, student-teacher relationship and different activities.  If the atmosphere of the classroom is according to the mental level of students then learners will learn in a more proficient and confident manner. The atmosphere of the classroom will relax the mind of the students.  Now, the basic aim of this research was to increase the interest of our students in education and also to promote education in our society as well. In this way not only teacher but every educated member of this society is responsible to motivate the young students towards variety of fields for the progress of our nation.



















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